Daily News Portal

Australia: All About Down Under

  1. home page
  2. hives popping up



Ayers Rock, known by Aboriginal people as Uluru, is one of Australia’s most popular visitor sites © Carl D. Walsh / IMAGO

Australia is not only naturally one of the most exciting continents on earth. Biodiversity is also unique. Home to kangaroos, crocodiles and koalas, the country tops the list of popularity for many tourists.

  • Australia With its picturesque coastal landscape with a hostile climate on the outskirts, it is considered a continent of extremes.
  • its native Aboriginal Living in this country in Oceania for more than 50,000 years.
  • The state is part of the British commonwealth And the form of government is a federal parliamentary monarchy.

Canberra – Australia It is a continent of extremes. This is not only because of the geographical and climatic conditions or the fascinating animal world of this country. as well as the history of the state as a former penal colony Great Britain Leave an impression here. attraction thatdown Under” The emphasis on many is always worthy of attention, above all, in the increasing tourist flow annually.

Australia: Aboriginal and First European

Already inhabited at least 50,000 years ago native continent from the north. However, it was not a single people, but a number of peoples, tribes and clans (around 200 to 700 when the British arrived), who were mainly active as hunters and gatherers. until the land bridge floods New Guinea Intercontinental exchanges with other cultures also took place 6,000 years ago. more immigrants than Indian subcontinent About 4,230 years ago, the possibilities of tool making and plant processing in the country changed. About 1,000 years ago, ethnic groups were also mixed by Melanesian sailors.

although already ancient time The theory of the existence of a southern continent is called “unknown southern land‘ As was known, Portuguese, French, Spanish and Dutch sailors from the European side only discovered the country here in the 16th century. Initially, due to the dry vegetation on the west coast, there was little interest in the new continent, and it was only through expeditions in the mid-17th century that the country began to attract the attention of European powers.

Australia: Colonized by Great Britain

The British commander arrived on 28 April 1770. James Cook East coast Australian and took it as a colony after two months new South Wales for kingdom of great britain authorized. To dilute the lower class in the British homeland, from 1788 in Australia Established the first penal colonies for the guilty. The first agreement for this was made after the British Home Secretary Sydney Nominated. By the middle of the 19th century, 160,000 prisoners were being taken down Under put to flight. brought the British exile policy Australia Also reputation as a “prison island”.

At the same time and in competition with the French, other colonies were established, some of which were designed as prison-free zones. The continent was rapidly explored in various expeditions. However, during colonization, conflicts between the settlers and their native To. There were repeated massacres in which many natives lost their lives.

Australia: The Road to the Nation and the Australian Confederation

beginning with gold Rush In 1851 more and more people voluntarily moved to the continent. The country could no longer be used exclusively as a penal colony. Some colonies gained more independence from the British Empire. Australia Walked on the path of the nation. after big sheep shear strike Folk Songs in 1898″Waltzing Matilda‘, which was also considered the country’s secret national anthem.

In 1901 the independent colonies united “Commonwealth of AustraliaTogether. Six years later they received Australian Confederation Ultimately its independence from mainland Britain. 1911 became canberra Nation’s capital.

It was not until 1986 that Australia receivedAustralia Act“One About His Ultimate Abilities” australian constitution, Nevertheless, in 1999 the majority of the population, 55 percent, decided against the referendum in a plebiscite. Republic and formally Empire To be pronounced under the British Crown.

Australia: Political System

Australia either Australian Confederation so there is a parliamentary Empire on a democratic parliamentary basis after westminster-system Destruction. The nation is federally structured and organized. The respective states have their own parliaments with extensive legislative powers. that two chamber system Australian Parliament is made up of Lok Sabha As the lower house, demo managing committee as the House of Lords and QUEEN ELIZABETH II. simultaneously as head of state.

will be emperor Commonwealth realm Represented by the Governor-General, however, has no power over Parliament. The Prime Minister is the strongest party in the government. The 150 members of the House of Representatives are elected every three years by a first-past-the-post system.

Australia: facts at a glance

  • Capital: Canberra
  • Official language: English
  • Area: 7,692,000 square kilometers
  • Population: 25.69 million (as of 2020)
  • Currency: Australian Dollar (AUD)
  • Administrative divisions: six states, three regions, seven suburbs
  • Religion: 22.6% Roman Catholic, 13.3% Anglican, 16.3% members of other Christian churches, 2.4% Islam, 1.9% Hinduism, 30.1% non-denominational

Australia: Population and Languages

Australia The country of immigration, which is also reflected in the composition of the population. About 92 percent are of European descent, about 7 percent are Asian. About 2.4 percent describe themselves as partially indigenous. 85% of Australians from countries of European descent have British or Irish ancestry. Other European countries of origin are Italy (916,121), Deutschland (898.674), Greece (378.270), Poland (170.354), Croatia (126.270), North Macedonia (93,570) and Serbia (69,544). ownership in 2019 Australia About 25.4 million residents.

About 79 percent of the population speaks English either. Australian English, In addition, Italian and a Chinese language can also be found in about 2 percent of the population. Even before Europeans settled the continent, about 500 to 600 different languages ​​could be found among the natives australian languages And this Melanesian to be assigned. majority of native They have largely abandoned their traditional lifestyle. It was only at the beginning of the 21st century that the Australian government paid more attention to the interests of the indigenous population.

Australia: Geography and Cities

Australia It is spread over an area of ​​about 7.7 million square kilometers and is also the sixth largest country in the world in terms of area. Geographically, three major landscapes (Eastern, Central and Western) can be distinguished. In the Western Australian region, mainly sandy deserts can be found. but also mountain landscapes or inselbergs like that Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock) related to.

Whereas the western vast landscape due to several dry areas coupled with the central (outback) is considered uninhabited, counts the eastern one Australia With its coastal landscape and coral reefs (Great barrier Reef) for the preferred settlement areas.

Australia’s largest cities at a glance

  • 1 Sydney to New South Wales: 5.005.400 Einwoner
  • 2 Melbourne in Victoria: 4,250,000 residents
  • 3 Brisbane in Queensland: 2,274,600 residents
  • 4 Perth in Western Australia: 1,897,548 residents
  • 5 Adelaide in South Australia: 1,277,174 residents
  • 6 Tweed Heads in Gold Coast – Queensland / New South Wales: 590.889 Einwohner
  • 7 Newcastle in New South Wales: 493.467 Einwoner
  • 8 Canberra – Queenbayan in the Australian Capital Territory / New South Wales: 368.128 Einwonner
  • 9 Wollongong in New South Wales: 263.535 Einwohner
  • 10 Sunshine Coast in Queensland: 209,578 residents

Australia: interesting facts about the country

The tourism boom has been going on for years Australia Feather. There is a period of three months for admission A view essential. not just the city Sydney, Melbourne, BrisbaneGold Coast, Cairns, Perth, Adelaide as well as the capital canberra Many top the list of day trippers. More than 20 national parks, such as Kakadu National Park, Uluru-Kata-Tjuta National Park, Blue Mountains National Park or Cape Le Grand National Park are popular destinations. Of wave rockThe kings canyonDie Michelle FallsBut this also Ayers Rock Tourists become magnets over and over again in the Outback.

The fauna of the continent is also unique. There are many animal species that are unique to this continent. Extreme contradictions can also be felt here: while Australia outgoing with Kangaroo And koala Ad, there are also a large number of venomous snakes and spiders in the wild. However, with the introduction of non-Australian animal species by European settlers, wildlife has also suffered. Many animal species are considered endangered. Because of this Australia Enacted extensive legislation to protect native animal species and established nature reserves specifically for this purpose.

Read Nore:Australia: All About Down Under